CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES About Artificial Stone How stones are formed Causes of stone color formation

How stones are formed

-------------Geological tectonic movement

 

Origins

 

The inference of ancient tectonic movement is mainly carried out by geological relics such as the characteristics of sedimentary sites, structural deformation and stratigraphic contact. The origin of tectonic movement mainly includes Earth contraction theory, expansion theory, pulsation theory and so on. It is generally believed that the lithospheric plate movement is caused by mantle convection. The study of tectonic movement is of great significance.

 

Forms of motion

Geological tectonic movement refers to the mechanical movement of crustal or lithospheric materials mainly caused by the internal energy of the earth. The main types of rock deformation are folds and faults. The main forms of tectonic movement are horizontal and ascending movement, that is, traditional orogeny and land movement. The modern tectonic movement is not only slow but also vigorous, both horizontal and ascending.

 

Movement of earth crust

The change in the position of the crust and its constituent rocks relative to a certain reference is called crustal movement. The solid earth's hard outer layer is called the crust, which consists of volcanic rock, sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock and meteorite. The change of position during the formation of crustal and compositional rocks and the erosion and transportation of crust and rocks by weathering are all crustal movements. The deformation of crustal and composition rocks and the change of altitude are formed by crustal movement.

Genesis of folded crust movement

 

1. Crustal movement and Genesis based on the silver road surface as a reference.

 

This type of crustal movement is the location change of the crust and its constituent rocks with reference to the silver path. This type of crustal movement causes global sea land changes.

 

After the formation of the earth, the solid matter of the earth remained essentially unchanged except for the fall of meteorites, that is to say, if there was a local uplift in the crust, there would have to be a local depression. The global sea land change is not a large scale change of the solid crust, but a global change of the sea.

 

The Earth's northern hemisphere is slightly pointed out, the southern hemisphere is concave, the north pole is 19 meters above the sphere, the south pole is 26 meters below the sphere, and the north and south poles are 45 meters apart.

 

The Arctic Ocean above the spherical surface is covered by the Arctic Ocean, while the south pole below the surface is land. The highest peak in Antarctica is Vincent peak, 4897 meters above sea level. The Arctic sea level is nearly 5000 meters above the South Pole.

 

There have been several global transgression and regression events in the geological history. The transgress sedimentary formation, limestone and marine fossils were formed during transgression. Regressive sedimentary formations are formed, with coal forming and terrestrial animal and plant fossils.

 

The two phenomenon is caused by the rotation of the earth around the galactic center of the galaxy.

 

The rotation of the earth causes tides due to the attraction of the moon and the sun. The water on the earth's surface protrudes in the gravitational direction.

 

The water of the earth's Arctic is higher than that of Antarctica, indicating that there is gravity in the earth's Arctic. In the Earth-Moon system and solar system, the water bulge in the North Pole remains through the rotation and revolution of the Earth, indicating that the gravitational pull in the direction of the Earth's North Pole has nothing to do with the Earth-Moon system and solar system.

 

In addition to circling the sun, the earth revolves around the center of the galaxy, with a revolution period of 250 million years. The angle between the earth's axis and the silver surface is 27 degrees 24 '.

 

Because of the tilt of the earth's axis (the angle between the earth's axis and the ecliptic is 66 degrees 34', and the angle between the equatorial plane and the ecliptic is 23 degrees 26'), the earth revolves around the sun. During the summer solstice, the northern hemisphere of the earth is close to the sun and is heavily attracted by the sun. During the winter solstice, the gravitational attraction of the sun in the southern hemisphere caused the outer sphere to rotate.

 

Similarly, because the Earth's axis tilts on the galactic plane and rotates around the center of the Galactic plane, the Earth's North Pole receives greater gravity at the summer solstice on the Galactic plane, and the water in the north pole of the Earth is bulging higher than that in the South pole. At the winter solstice on the Galactic plane, the south pole of the earth is gravitated more by the gravity of the silver, and the water in the south pole that forms the earth bulges higher than that in the North pole. When the Earth is on the Galactic Vernal Equinox and Autumn Equinox, the water at the Earth's equator is projected higher by the gravitational pull of the center of the galaxy, the sun and the moon. This change of the earth's water forms a global sea-land transition, whose cycle is determined by the earth's rotation around the center of the silver. Global sea-land transition cycles in the Antarctic and Arctic are 250 million years and 125 million years in other regions.

 

The trend of global sea land change is in the north-south direction. Influenced by the land, the direction of sea going regressive will change.

 

The depth of sea water in a global sea-land transition can reach 5,000 meters, depending on the current difference between the sea level and the sphere in the Earth's Antarctic and Arctic regions.

 

At present, the distance from the sun to the center of the silver is about the distance, and the revolution of the sun around the center of the silver is also about. Therefore, the cycle of global sea land change is also about.

 

The angle between the earth's axis and the Galactic surface is 27 degrees 24'calculated from the celestial sphere. The celestial sphere is a man-made sphere centered on the earth. In the Milky Way, the galactic center is the center, the sun revolves around the Galactic center, and the earth revolves around the galactic center with the sun. Therefore, the angle between the earth axis and the silver surface is 27 degrees 24 'is the reference number.

 

This type of crustal movement is formed by the capture of the sun by the galactic center and the rotation of the sun around it.

 

2. Crustal movement and Genesis based on the ecliptic plane as a reference.

 

The orbital plane of the earth revolving around the sun is called the ecliptic plane. This type of crustal movement is the location change of the crust and its constituent rocks with reference to the ecliptic plane.

 

This kind of crustal movement can be divided into three categories: first, the position change of the earth's self-transporting crust relative to the ecliptic surface; second, the position change of the earth's common transporting crust relative to the ecliptic surface; third, the position change of the earth's crust relative to the ecliptic surface due to the change of the earth's axis dip angle.

 

This kind of crustal movement causes the change of day and night, season and climate, causes the change of the gravity of the sun and moon to the earth, and then causes other types of crustal movement.

 

The origin of this type of crustal movement is caused by the origin and evolution of the solar system.

 

3. Crustal movement and Genesis based on the reference of the earth axis.

 

The location of the crust and its constituent rocks varies with the reference of the earth's axis, which is second to the second type of crustal movement, causing the displacement of the earth's poles and magnetic poles.

 

Relative to the change of the earth axis, the earth pole moved. This kind of crustal movement causes the change of the geographic coordinates of the earth's crust and the earth's surface, the change of season and climate, and the change of the gravitational balance between the sun and the moon.

 

The origin of this type of crustal movement is:

 

Under the action of the attraction of the sun and the moon, the outer sphere of the layered earth is rotated.

 

4. Crustal movement and Genesis based on reference of geographical coordinates.

 

The location of the crust and its constituent rocks changes according to the geographic coordinates. The crustal movement of this kind forms large-scale uplift and depression subsidence of the crust, forming mountains and plateaus, forming plains and basins, forming steep mountains and valleys.

There are four main sources of power for this type of crustal movement:

 

First, erosion and transport and deposition of water and wind.

 

This kind of geological process not only forms crustal movement of different scales, but also forms sediments and sedimentary rocks which are the material basis of forming mountains and plateaus.

 

Water erosion, transport and sedimentation

 

The denudation, transportation and sedimentation of water can be divided into two types: one is the geological process of ocean currents, the other is the geological process of rivers.

 

Ocean currents can transport gravel and sediment over long distances, forming large areas of sediments and sedimentary rocks.

 

The geological processes of rivers depend on their length to form and transport far and near, and on their height difference and flow to form denudation and transport intensity. The denudation and transport of water can transform mountains and plateaus into valleys and plains; fill low-lying areas; and form large-scale River Delta deposits.

 

The crustal movement formed by the denudation, transportation and sedimentation of water reduces the relative height of the crustal mountains, denudes high and fills low, and makes the crust tend to balance.

 

Erosion, transport and deposition of wind

 

The characteristics of wind erosion, transport and deposition of rocks:

 

Wind erosion occurs in arid areas with little rain. It not only denudes the high mountains and plateaus, but also denudes the valleys and depressions.

 

The wind's handling function varies from a distance to a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers away from the erosion site. Its sedimentary area is different in size and can reach several million square kilometers.

 

Wind deposits can occur on land and in water, in depressions and plains, in mountains and plateaus, and in plains and mountains.

 

Aeolian terrain is easy to change and migrate.

 

Aeolian deposits can form clastic rocks with high dip angle and form sedimentary fold structures.

 

The deposition of wind can occur alternatively or alternately with the deposition of rivers, rivers, lakes and seas.

 

Second, the centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the earth from the poles to the equator.

 

Geo mechanics simulation tests have been carried out to prove that the crustal material moves towards the equator of the earth under the action of the centrifugal force of the earth's rotation.

 

Thirdly, when the earth rotates from west to East under the gravitational force of the sun and the moon, the different mass blocks of the earth's crust move from east to west and the velocity difference is produced.

 

Without the attraction of other planets, all parts of the earth's crust rotate uniformly around the earth as the earth rotates. Under the gravitational force of the sun and the moon, due to the in-homogeneity of the material in the crust, the velocity difference movement along the latitude direction is produced, forming the squeeze and separation.

 

Hang up a basin filled with water. Put different substances in it. Turn the basin. Some of these substances are squeezed together and some are separated, as shown in Figure 5-30.

 

The composition of the earth's crust is uneven in large areas or small areas. In the large region, there are large blocks of land, such as Eurasia, Africa, North and South America, Antarctica and so on. The oceans have several large blocks, such as the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. These large blocks are different in topography, material composition, area size, geometry, geographical location, quality, structure and so on. There are many blocks in large blocks.

 

These large and small blocks in the earth's crust, subject to the gravity of the sun and the moon, move at different speeds when the earth rotates. As the earth rotates from west to East, the large and small blocks in the crust form the relative movement from east to west.

Fourth, different rock physical properties are different in deformation.

 

Different rocks have different physical properties. Under the action of force, geological structures are different.

 

Sedimentary rocks

 

Rocks are divided into classic rock, clayey rock, chemical rock and biochemical rock.

 

Layered, strong inter-layer sliding, especially clay rocks, chemical rocks and biochemical rocks, under the lubrication of water, inter-layer sliding is stronger. The rock is more flexible and plastic than volcanic rocks.

 

Under the action of extrusion pressure, bending deformation and inter-laminar sliding occur easily, forming folds. When the extrusion pressure further acts, a dislocation is formed and a fault structure is formed.

 

Pragmatical rocks

 

Rocks are divided into intrusive rocks and extrusive rocks (also called volcanic rocks).

 

Volcanic rocks include two types of volcanic lava and plasticity rock. The types of volcanic lava include Kimberly, basalt, designate, theodolite, glassy lava, tracheae and obsidian.

 

Basalt is the most widely distributed volcanic lava in nature and ranks first in extrusive rocks. The rigidity and brittleness of rock are strong.

 

Under the action of extrusion pressure, it is easy to occur dislocation and form fault structure.

 

The geological structure of the rock formed by different forces during the different stages of formation is different.

 

Crustal movement compression force accompanies the formation of rocks to this day. In different periods of rock formation, the same force acts on rocks, forming different geological structures. In the early stage of rock formation, bending deformation is easily formed under the action of force. When rock is consolidated, it is easy to form dislocation deformation under the action of force.

 

5. Crustal movement and Genesis based on ground objects as reference materials.

 

The crustal movement taking the ground object as the reference object, the crustal composition material rock relative movement distance is small, belongs to the small range crustal movement. In addition to large-scale crustal movement can cause this kind of crustal movement, earthquakes, volcanoes, collapses, meteorite impact, biological activities and so on can cause this kind of crustal movement.

 

6. The crustal movement and genesis of the sphere as a reference.

 

This kind of crustal movement is the change of the position of the crust and the crustal composition material which takes the earth's sphere as the reference. The first five kinds of crustal movement can cause this kind of crustal movement.